American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)
The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) is a nonprofit organization providing test method development, quality control materials, education, and professional networking for its members, which include manufacturers of textiles, apparel, and home goods; dye and chemical manufacturers; testing laboratories; consumer and retail organizations; state and federal government agencies; and colleges and universities. AATCC is internationally recognized for its standard methods of testing fibers and fabrics to measure and evaluate such performance characteristics as colorfastness, appearance, soil release, dimensional change, and water resistance.
AATCC 118-1992: Oil Repellency – Hydrocarbon Resistance Test
A method of measuring the ability of fabrics to resist oily stains from resting liquids. It is primarily used by fabric finishers to evaluate the likely performance of oleophobic finishes in actual use. In the test, drops of hydrocarbons with increasingly penetrative properties are applied to a treated fabric for about 30 seconds before being wicked away. The drops are evaluated for contact angle and their sites are inspected for penetration or absorption of the hydrocarbon. Fabrics are scored by the most penetrative hydrocarbon they are able to repel, on a ranked scale of 0 to 8.
AATCC 193-2005: Aqueous Liquid Repellency – Water/Alcohol Solution Resistance Test
A method of measuring the ability of fabrics to resist water/alcohol stains from resting liquids. It is primarily used by fabric finishers to evaluate the likely performance of hydrophobic finishes in actual use. In the test, drops of water/alcohol solutions with increasingly penetrative properties are applied to a treated fabric for about 10 seconds before being wicked away. The drops are evaluated for contact angle and their sites are inspected for penetration or absorption of the solution. Fabrics are scored by the highest alcohol content in solution they are able to repel, on a ranked scale of 0 to 11.
AATCC 22-1989: Water Repellency – Spray Test
A method of measuring the ability of fabrics to resist high energy wetting by water and water solutions. In the test, 250 mL of water is allowed to cascade over a piece of fabric held taut and at an angle through a spray nozzle from a height of 6 inches. After all the water has finished its spray, the fabric sample is tapped and inspected for wetting. It is rated on a scale from 0 to 100, with 0 showing total wetting and 100 showing no wetting or sticking.
The wearing away of any part of a material by rubbing against another surface. Most commonly, a fabric’s resistance to abrasion is rated by using either the Martindale test or Wyzenbeek test. At the end of either testing period, three types of changes are looked for: mass loss, color change, and hole formation or yarn breakage. The earlier these changes occur, the poorer the fabric’s resistance to abrasion. The Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) has set allowable thresholds for acceptable abrasion results, ranging from 15,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method (20,000 cycles Martindale method) for general contract upholstery, to 30,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method (40,000 cycles Martindale method) for heavy-duty upholstery to 50,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method for heavy-duty coated upholstery fabrics. Often extreme wear situations may require higher level abrasion resistance, for example, 24-hour facilities and public gathering places such as theaters, stadiums, lecture halls, etc. ACT strongly suggests that double rubs exceeding 100,000 are not meaningful in providing additional value in use. Higher abrasion results do not necessarily indicate a significant extension in the life of the fabric.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a nonprofit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. ANSI also coordinates US standards with international standards so that American products can be used worldwide. By accrediting standards that are developed by representatives of other standards organizations, government agencies, consumer groups, etc., ANSI helps to ensure that the characteristics and performance of products are consistent, that products are tested to the same standards, and that consistent definitions and terms for products are used.
An antibacterial is an agent that interferes with the growth and reproduction of bacteria. An antibacterial is not a disinfectant; disinfectants are used to destroy microorganisms.
An antimicrobial is an agent that interferes with the growth and reproduction of microbes. Microbes are living organisms that multiply frequently and spread rapidly. Common examples of microbes are bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial products disinfect, sanitize, reduce, or mitigate the development of microbiological organisms and protect inanimate objects from contamination, fouling, or deterioration caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae, or slime.
Antimicrobial chitosan is a nontoxic carbohydrate produced from shrimp and lobster shells. It has natural antimicrobial properties and helps prevent the growth of microorganisms.
Association for Contract Textiles (ACT)
The Association for Contract Textiles (ACT), founded in 1985, is a non-profit professional trade association of companies involved in the design, development, production, and promotion of textiles for commercial interiors. ACT is responsible for establishing and promoting voluntary and environmental guidelines; monitoring and reporting legislation affecting the textile industry, creating lobbying efforts where necessary; supporting textile design education and vocation; serving as a forum for design professionals to provide input regarding the use of textiles for commercial interiors; and serving as the definitive resource for contract textile information and education. Currently the membership of the association includes principal members, furniture associate members, industry partners, and individuals.
ASTM 4966: Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Martindale Abrasion Tester Method)
ASTM 4966: Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics is a means of testing a fabric’s abrasion durability and suitability; it is also known as a “rub test” and is generally performed in the UK and Europe. In the Martindale method of testing abrasion, fabric samples are held mounted flat and rubbed in a figure-eight motion using a piece of worsted wool as the abradant. The number of cycles that the fabric can endure before fabric shows objectionable changes in appearance (yarn breakage, pilling, holes) is counted and the number of cycles determines the abrasion rating.
The Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) has set allowable thresholds for acceptable abrasion results, ranging from 20,000 cycles Martindale method for general contract upholstery, to 40,000 cycles Martindale method for heavy-duty upholstery. Often extreme wear situations may require higher level abrasion resistance, for example, 24-hour facilities and public gathering places such as theaters, stadiums, lecture halls, etc.
ASTM D4157: Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Wyzenbeek Abrasion Tester Method)
ASTM D4157: Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Textile Fabrics (Wyzenbeek Abrasion Tester Method) is a means of testing a fabric’s abrasion durability and suitability; it is also known as a “rub test” and is generally performed in the US. In the Wyzenbeek method of testing abrasion, the test fabric is pulled tight in a frame and held stationary while a plain, cotton duck fabric is rubbed back and forth. The number of double rub cycles achieved before two yarn breaks occur is how the rating is determined.
The Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) has set allowable thresholds for acceptable abrasion results, ranging from 15,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method for general contract upholstery, to 30,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method for heavy-duty upholstery, to 50,000 double rubs Wyzenbeek method for heavy-duty coated upholstery fabrics. Often extreme wear situations may require higher level abrasion resistance, for example, 24-hour facilities and public gathering places such as theaters, stadiums, lecture halls, etc.
ASTM D4966: Standard Method for Abrasion Resistance and Other Related Surface Changes of Textile Fabrics: Martindale Tester
ASTM D4966: Standard Method for Abrasion Resistance and Other Related Surface Changes of Textile Fabrics: Martindale Tester is a method of testing a fabric’s abrasion resistance. In this test, test specimens are laundered three times and then conditioned in atmospheric conditions for textiles. The specimen is then mounted in the bottom table as well as in the specimen holder. A Martindale test is performed with one specimen acting as the test specimen and one specimen acting as the abradant. The machine is run for 100 cycles and evaluated and may be run up to 1,000 cycles with 100-cycle evaluation intervals. The samples are evaluated in a viewing apparatus against photographic standards or against an in-house specimen.
ASTM D751: Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics
ASTM D751: Standard Test Methods for Coated Fabrics is a means of testing the mechanical properties of coated fabrics. The specific tests include: breaking strength – procedure A (grab test method), breaking strength – procedure B (cut strip test method, elongation, bursting strength, puncture resistance, tearing strength – procedure B (tongue tear method), trapezoidal tear, adhesion coating to fabrics, tack-tear resistance, seam strength, dead load seam strength, crush resistance.
Bella-Dura® fiber is a stain-resistant, solution-dyed polyolefin with a silver-based antimicrobial. Used in conjunction with the topical finish Greenshield®, Bella-Dura yarns can achieve Cradle-to-Cradle Certification. Bella-Dura is a registered trademark of Wearbest Sil-Tex Mills. Greenshield is a registered trademark of BigSky Technologies, LLC.
A biodegradable substance is capable of being broken down especially into innocuous products by the action of living things (as microorganisms) and return to compounds found in nature.
BLOCKAIDE™ Fluid Barrier Treatment
BLOCKAIDE™ Fluid Barrier Treatment is a stain-resistant finish with a C6-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry. BLOCKAIDE is a trademark of Edmar Chemical Company.
C4 Fluorocarbon Chemistry
In a C4-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry, telomerization produces a chain length of 4 units that break down more rapidly in the environment than C6 chemistry. A downside of fewer fluorocarbons is that it could render the textile less stain resistant that C6 chemistry, and often more of the chemical has to be used to create the same effect as C6 or even C8 chemistry.
C6 Fluorocarbon Chemistry
In a C6-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry, telomerization produces a chain length of 6 units that break down more rapidly in the environment than C8 chemistry. C6 chemistry is closest chemically to C8, but it contains no perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the formulation. A downside of fewer fluorocarbons is that it could render the textile less stain resistant that C8 chemistry and often more of the chemical has to be used to create the same effect as C8 chemistry.
C8 Fluorocarbon Chemistry
In C8-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry, the backbone of the carbon chain is made of 8 carbon atoms. Two different methods are used to produce this chemistry:
1) Electro fluorination, which uses electrolysis to replace hydrogen atoms with fluorine atoms to create the 8-unit chain. As a result, the chain contains just carbon and fluorine. A small amount of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) is created during this process.
2) Telomerization is the chemical equivalent of making a daisy chain. Telomerization produces mini polymers by joining single units together in chains. The usual aim is to produce chains that are an average of 8 units long, but often a range of chain lengths will result – from 4 units to 14 units in length (C4 to C14). In this method, a small amount of by-product called perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is produced.
CA Section 01350
CA Section 01350 is a standard specification developed by the State of California to cover key environmental performance issues related to the selection and handling of building materials and is intended to help reduce the impact of building materials on indoor air quality and health. Section 01350 covers environmental and public health considerations for building projects, establishes goals and provides guidelines for: energy, materials, water efficiency, indoor air quality, nontoxic performance standards for cleaning and maintenance products, and sustainable site planning and landscaping considerations. GREENGUARD® Gold™ certified products, and products certified with SCS Indoor Advantage and Indoor Advantage Gold comply with CA Section 01350 indoor air quality requirements.
Cleaning residue is the residue left behind after using a cleaner. Residue remains when inadequate rinsing has occurred and leftover residue often attracts dirt that over time may be harmful to fibers and other materials.
Cradle to Cradle Certified
Cradle to Cradle product certification, which began as a proprietary life cycle certification system by Michael Braungart and William McDonough, is now part of the nonprofit Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute. The five certification criteria are: material health, material reutilization, assessment of energy required for production, water, and social responsibility. The certification is available at several levels: basic, silver, gold, and platinum. Cradle to Cradle Certified is a trademark of the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute.
Cradle to Cradle Design (C2C)
Cradle to Cradle design (C2C) is a biometric approach to the design of products and systems that evaluates the economic, industrial, and social framework of products and seeks to create systems that are efficient and waste free. This life cycle model is not limited to industrial design and manufacturing; it can be applied to many aspects of human civilization, such as urban environments, buildings, economics, and social systems.
Crypton® is a silver-based antimicrobial stain-resistant finish with an impermeable backing. The stain-resistant chemistry is a C6-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry. Crypton is a registered trademark of The Crypton Companies.
Defiance™ is an antimicrobial stain-resistant finish with a C8-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry. The finish must be used in combination with Sunbrella® textile base in order to achieve UV resistance. Sunbrella is a registered trademark and Defiance is a trademark of Glen Raven, Inc.
Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC)
The Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) is an agency of the government of the state of California. The mission of the DTSC is to provide the highest level of safety and to protect public health and the environment from toxic harm. DTSC recently developed a program called Safer Consumer Products Program (SCP) for identifying and substituting hazardous chemicals in products that pose a threat to public health and the environment of consumer products sold in to California. The goals of this program are: to reduce toxic chemicals in consumer products; create new business opportunities in the emerging safer consumer products economy; and reduce the burden on consumers and businesses struggling to identify product content.
Disinfecting refers to killing a high percentage of the germs on a surface or rendering them incapable of reproducing.
Eco-Intelligent Polyester® fiber is a polyester yarn free of the catalyst antimony trioxide. Eco-Intelligent Polyester is Cradle-to-Cradle CertifiedCM. Eco-Intelligent Polyester is a registered trademark of Victor Innovatex, Inc. Cradle-to-Cradle Certified is a trademark of the Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute.
Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)
The Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is a quantified means of reporting the environmental data of products based on a life cycle assessment.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The EPA is responsible for preventing and detecting environmental crimes, informing the public of environmental enforcement, and setting and monitoring standards of air pollution, water pollution, hazardous wastes, and chemicals.
European Union (EU) Ecolabel
The European Union (EU) Ecolabel, independently verified and endorsed by the European Commission, is a voluntary label awarded to products that have undergone a rigorous life cycle analysis and meet specific ecological criteria from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture, packaging, distribution, and use and disposal of the product. The EU Ecolabel is applicable for producers, importers, and retailers of products.
Fluorine is a member of the halogen family and the most reactive of all of the elements. Fluorine is capable of combining with nearly every other element in the periodic table.
Also referred to as perfluorocarbons (or PFCs), fluorocarbons are compounds that contain carbon and fluorine bonded together in strong carbon-fluorine bonds. Fluorocarbons are used primarily as lubricants, refrigerants, nonstick coatings, and in making resins and plastics. There are various types of fluorocarbons consisting of: CFC (chloro fluoro carbon), HCFC (hydro chloro fluoro carbon), and HFC (hydro fluoro carbon). CFC, a type of fluorocarbon that contains chlorine, has been completely banned due to its ozone damaging potential. HCFCs also contain chlorine but contain hydrogen as well, lessening its ozone damaging potential. Despite this, HCFCs are on their way to total abolition due to the fact that HFCs are now widely available. HFCs do not contain chlorine, but hydrogen instead, and are used currently as refrigerants and solvents, among other uses.
Fluorochemical is a chemical compound containing fluorine.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements, prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, and veterinary products.
GreenBlue® is a nonprofit organization founded in 2002 that focuses on guiding businesses and industry toward sustainable design and production. Current projects include: the Sustainable Packaging Coalition, a working group of leading companies across the packaging supply chain recognized as the leading voice on packaging sustainability; Metafore, which implements innovations related to evaluating, selecting and manufacturing environmentally preferable wood and paper products; and CleanGredients, a chemicals database that helps companies identify environmentally preferable chemicals for use in consumer products. GreenBlue also evaluates, audits and certifies companies for compliance with standards. GreenBlue is a registered trademark of GreenBlue.
GREENGUARD® certification verifies that chemical and particle emissions of certified products fall within acceptable indoor air quality pollutant thresholds. Products are tested for emissions of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), respirable particles, ozone, and other pollutants using environmental chamber protocols designed to simulate typical indoor environments. Maximum allowable emission levels are defined by the State of Washington’s indoor air quality program for new construction, the US Environmental Protection Agency’s procurements specifications, recommendations from the World Health Organization, Germany’s Blue Angel Program for electronic equipment, LEED for New Construction, and LEED for Commercial Interiors. GREENGUARD is a registered trademark of Underwriters Laboratories LLC.
GREENGUARD® Gold™ Certification
GREENGUARD Gold™ certification is a separate program tailored to the needs of children who have a greater sensitivity to indoor air quality. GREENGUARD Gold sets lower thresholds on allowable emissions by a factor of 0.43 to account for the needs of educational environments. GREENGUARD Gold certified textiles comply with CA Section 01350 requirements for schools and are accepted for Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Low-Emitting Materials credits. GREENGUARD is a registered trademark and GREENGUARD Gold is a trademark of Underwriter Laboratories LLC.
Greenshield® is a stain-resistant finish with a C6-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry based on nanotechnology. Greenshield is Cradle to Cradle Certified and is certified by Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) as a Low Fluorocarbon treatment product. Greenshield is a registered trademark of BigSky Technologies, LLC.
Health Product Declaration (HPD)
The Health Product Declaration (HPD) is a format for conveying details about product content and associated health hazard information of building products created by The Health Product Declaration Collaborative, a customer-led organization for companies and individuals. The main goal of an HPD is to help manufacturers communicate important data in a consistent and transparent manner so consumers can make an informed decision when specifying, purchasing, and using building products.
Health Product Declaration Collaborative (HPDC)
The Health Product Declaration Collaborative (HPDC) is an organization committed to the continuous improvement of the building industry’s environmental and health performance through transparency and innovation in the building product supply chain. The HPDC was instrumental in creating the Health Product Declaration Open Standard, a standard format that systemizes reporting language to enable the transparent disclosure of information.
High-energy dyeing is a means of dyeing polyester fibers at high temperatures in order to impart the qualities of a solution-dyed textile to a textile that has been fiber, yarn, or piece dyed. Through heat and pressure in the dyeing process, pigment is pushed deep into the core of fiber and yarn, resulting in a textile that is uniformly pigmented through its core. As a result, high-energy dyed yarns have high colorfastness to light and can be resistant to many chemicals, including bleach.
A textile that is impermeable does not allow the passage of liquid, though there are varying degrees of permeability depending on the pressure applied and the porosity of the material. A textile’s permeability is tested using a Suter Tester, a specific machine intended to test the water-pressure resistance and endurance of an impermeable textile.
This is an applied finish that helps to prevent the staining of ink. It does not render the textile “ink proof.”
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool to quantify the potential environmental impacts of materials, processes, and products associated with all stages of the life cycle from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal and recycling. The most common LCA impacts determined are Global Warming Potential (carbon footprint), Acidification Potential, Eutrophication, Ozone Depletion, and Human and Eco Toxicity. There are two main types of LCAs. Attributional LCAs seek to establish the burdens associated with the production and use of a product, at a point in time. Consequential LCAs seek to identify the environmental consequences of a decision or proposed change in a system under study, which means that the market and economic implications of a decision may have to be taken into account. Social LCA is currently under development and assesses the social implications or potential impacts. Social LCAs should be thought of as complementary to environmental LCAs.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism. Microorganisms include forms of bacteria and fungi, but do not include viruses, which are generally considered nonliving. Microorganisms live almost everywhere on Earth where there is liquid water and are critical to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. The microbes that invade other organisms and cause disease are known as pathogens.
A moisture barrier resists the diffusion of moisture through a surface. It is known to have varying degrees of permeability.
Nano-Tex® is a stain-resistant finish with a C6-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry. Nano-Tex is a registered trademark of The Crypton Companies.
Non-woven textiles are flat or tufted porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers, molten plastic, or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn.
NSF International has been testing and certifying products for safety, health, and the environment for more than 65 years. As an independent nonprofit organization, NSF’s mission is to protect public health and the environment through standards development, inspection, testing, and certification for the food, water, and building materials. NSF International operates in more than 120 countries worldwide.
NSF/American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 336, also known as Sustainability Assessment for Co
NSF/ANSI 336 is a multi-attribute ANSI standard that assesses the level of the sustainability of commercial furnishings fabrics developed by NSF International in collaboration with the Association for Contract Textiles (ACT) and is modeled after other similar sustainability standards. NSF/ANSI 336 sets levels of performance for commercial furnishings fabrics to address environmental, economic, and social responsibility elements of sustainability. NSF/ANSI 336 is a voluntary set of guidelines and assesses a range of environmental issues specific to textile manufacturing practices including: fiber sourcing, safety of materials, water conservation and water quality, energy, recycling practices, air quality in manufacturing, and social accountability. Certification is based on point totals to achieve Compliant, Silver, Gold, or Platinum, and organizations may achieve first-party, second-party, or third-party conformance.
OEKO-TEX® Standard 100
OEKO-TEX® is a European toxicity test that evaluates textiles for the presence of a broad array of harmful substances that may cause potential health impacts through direct skin contact. The scope covers textile raw materials, intermediate, and end product at all stages of production. Four classes of certification are granted to textiles that meet or fall below specified limits for a broad array of chemicals:
- Class I textiles are the least harmful and are approved for children up to two years old under any exposure condition.
- Class II textiles are approved for textile applications in which adult skin is exposed to large surface areas of the textile.
- Class III textiles are approved textile applications in which adult skin is exposed to small surface areas.
- Class IV textiles are approved for furnishings.
- OEKO-TEX is a registered trademark of the OEKO-TEX Association.
A pathogen is any microorganism that causes disease in its host. Pathogens are also widely referred to as germs, and the most common are viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Pathogens have been responsible for causing smallpox, influenza, mumps, measles, chickenpox, ebola, and rubella.
Perfluorooctanesulfonic Acid (PFOS)
Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) is a key ingredient in numerous stain repellents and also has been identified by the EPA as a likely carcinogen and possible cause of birth defects. PFOS is different than perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in that it contains sulfonic acid. PFOS has been widely phased out of production due to the EPA’s efforts.
Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a by-product of the stain resistant finish manufacturing process. The EPA has identified PFOA as a likely carcinogen and a possible cause of birth defects. PFOA is sometimes referred to as C8, referring to the number of carbon atoms present. More recently C6 and even C4 chemistries have been developed and these chemistries are widely thought to be PFOA-Free. While it is true that the amount of PFOA in these finishing formulations is greatly diminished (and continues to go down), parts per trillion are still detectable. PFOA is also produced indirectly through the gradual breakdown of fluorotelomers meaning that a stain resistant finish may be formulated with no detectable amounts of PFOA (C4 and C6 chemistries for example) yet still produce PFOA when the chemicals begin to decompose.
Phenol is an aromatic compound found in many household and hospital-grade cleaners (also known as phenolic cleaners). A by-product of the petroleum industry, phenol and its vapors are corrosive to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract after repeated or prolonged contact.
Physical Properties is the measure of a fabric’s susceptibility to form small balls of fiber on the surface of the fabric; the measurement of stress exerted to pull a fabric apart under tension; and the movement of yarns in a fabric that occurs when it is pulled apart at the seam. Textiles must meet these minimum testing requirements for specific applications:
Upholstery – Woven Fabrics: Brush Pill – ASTM D3511, Class 3 minimum or Martindale Tester ASTM D4970, Class 3 minimum; Breaking Strength – ASTM D5034, 50 lbs. minimum in warp and weft; Seam Slippage – ASTM D4034, 25 lbs. minimum in warp and weft.
Upholstery – Coated Fabrics: Adhesion of Coating – ASTM D751, 3lbf/in minimum; Tear Strength – ASTM2261 Tongue Tear Knits & Woven Substrates, 4×4 lbs., ASTM D5733 Non-Woven Substrates, 15 x 15 lbs.; Hydrolysis Resistance (applicable to polyurethanes only) – ISO 1419 (Tropical Test Method C), 5 weeks.
Polymers are created via the polymerization of many monomers. Consequently, they have a large molecular mass that produces unique physical properties including toughness, elasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semi crystalline structures. Amber, wool, silk, natural rubber, and cellulose are examples of natural polymeric materials. Synthetic rubber, neoprene, nylon, vinyl, polyethylene, polypropylene, and silicone are examples of a synthetic polymeric material.
A polyurethane textile is a non-woven textile made by laminating a thin film of polyurethane to a polyester weave. Certain textures or embosses may not be as stain resistant as others. To create textures in polyurethane textiles, release papers are pressed into the molten polyurethane surface during production.
Post-Consumer Recycled Polyester
Post-consumer recycled polyester is recovered from the consumer supply chain, primarily from beverage bottles (PET), which are recycled, ground, and then processed as a polyester staple fiber.
Pre-Consumer Recycled Polyester (Post-Industrial)
Pre-consumer recycled polyester, also known as Post-Industrial polyester, is derived from waste generated during the manufacturing process.
A rayon fiber is a semi-synthetic fiber produced from natural cellulosic material, which is then processed with chemicals in to a liquid and regenerated into fiber.
Rayon from Bamboo Fiber
Rayon from bamboo fiber is a semi-synthetic fiber produced from the natural cellulosic material of the bamboo plant, which is then processed with chemicals in to a liquid and regenerated into fiber.
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH)
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemical Substances (REACH) is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use. The aim of REACH is to improve human health through the identification of the properties of chemical substances by requiring manufacturers to gather information on the properties of their chemical substances, register the information in a central database run by the European Chemicals Agency, and to substitute Substances of Very High Concern when suitable alternatives have been identified.
Repreve® by Unifi®, Inc.
Repreve® by Unifi®, Inc. is a fiber made of recycled materials including PET. The recycled yarns in Repreve are certified by SCS Global Services and Oeko-Tex Standard 100.
Reverse Crocking/Dye Transfer
Generally caused by humidity and variations in temperature, reverse crocking and dye transfer occurs when dyes from clothing migrate and stain other materials such as upholstered furniture. Dye transfer is most noticeable when dark or highly saturated fabrics (denim, for example) come in contact with light colored fabrics. Dye transfer cannot be controlled, is not preventable, but can be reversed.
Scientific Certification Systems (SCS Global Services)
SCS Global Services is a pioneer and leader in third-party certification and validation of environmental, sustainability, stewardship, life cycle assessment, and food quality and safety claims. Founded in the San Francisco bay area in 1984, its aim is to help companies achieve the highest level of environmental performance and social accountability. SCS evaluates companies for compliance with standards such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), USDA Organic, BIFMA level, Veriflora, Safe Quality Food (SQF), British Retail Consortium (BRC), and Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) among others. SCS also audits and certifies accomplishments in greenhouse gas offsets, organic and sustainable agricultural production, food processing and handling, responsible forest management, responsible fisheries management, energy generation, green building, product manufacturing, and supply chain management.
Silane-based antimicrobial agents work by puncturing and rupturing bacteria cells. Since it is not consumed and does not dissipate, the antimicrobial agent is not depleted and continues to control microbial growth over time, meaning that the antimicrobial will be effective as long as the surface remains clean. Dirt buildup will inhibit the antimicrobial process. Silane-based antimicrobial agents have been known to be effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, MRSA, mold, mildew, fungi, and algae. Silane is a silicone derivative and is heavy metal free.
A silicone textile is a non-woven textile made by laminating silicone to a polyester weave.
A silver-based antimicrobial agent works when silver ions disrupt microbe cell metabolism, inhibit microbe respiration, and inhibit cell reproduction. Silver ions can be added to the synthetic materials in the polymer state or they can be applied to textiles as a topical treatment. Silver is a heavy metal, however, the minute quantity used in antimicrobial applications has not been shown to impact human health. Silver-based antimicrobial agents have been known to be effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, MRSA, mold, mildew, fungi, and algae.
Solution-dyed fibers have been dyed using a solution-dyeing process in which the pigment is added to the fiber at the molten state before extrusion. Solution-dyeing permanently locks in color, resulting in fabrics that have high colorfastness to light and can be resistant to many chemicals, including bleach.
Stain release is a treatment that aids in releasing stains when cleaned with water. It is most commonly used on fabrics that will be laundered.
Stain repellent is a treatment that aids in repelling liquid from the fabric surface. Usually liquids will bead up and roll off the surface of the treated fabric.
Stain resistance is the ability of a fiber or chemical finish applied to a fiber that inhibits specific stains from adhering to or discoloring fabrics.
This is an applied finish with a fluorocarbon-based stain-resistant chemistry. Stain-resistant finishes aid in mitigating stains when stains are attended to promptly utilizing the proper cleaning protocol.
Stain-Resistant Finish with Impermeable Backing
This is an applied finish and backing combination with a fluorocarbon-based stain-resistant chemistry that also aids in moisture absorption.
Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC)
Substances are identified as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) if they meet the classification criterion for a carcinogenic, mutagenic, or a reproductive toxin 1A or 1B in accordance with Commission Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (CMR), or are persistent, bio accumulative, and toxic (PBT), or are very persistent and very bio accumulative (vPvB) according to REACH Annex XIII, or are identified to have significant scientific evidence that probable serious effects causing an equivalent level of concern as with a CMR or PBT/vPvB substance.
Sunbrella® Acrylic Fiber is a stain-resistant, solution-dyed acrylic fiber intended for outdoor use. Sunbrella is a registered trademark and Defiance is a trademark of Glen Raven, Inc.
Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric (FACTS)
Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric (FACTS) is a voluntary, multi-attribute sustainability standard used to evaluate and certify the sustainability of commercial furnishings fabric. The standard addresses the environmental, economic, and social aspects of woven, non-woven, bonded, or knitted fabrics and incorporates life cycle assessment criteria that measures inputs, outputs, and the environmental impacts of textile products across their lifespan. Evaluations are completed in eight quantifiable areas, and certification is based on point totals. Organizations can choose to achieve first-party, second-party, or third-party conformance and, depending on total points achieved, textiles may attain Compliance, Silver, Gold, or Platinum level.
Teflon® is a stain-resistant finish with a C8-based fluorocarbon stain-resistant chemistry. Teflon is a registered trademark of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates.
At this time, a national or international infrastructure to collect and process textiles at the end of their useful lives does not exist. For this reason, most textiles are not truly biodegradable or recyclable.
Trevira® CS Polyester
Trevira® CS Polyester Fiber is a polyester yarn with flame-retardant properties in the fiber. Trevira CS Polyester yarns are OEKO-TEX® Certified. Trevira is a registered trademark of Trevira GmbH. OEKO-TEX is a registered trademark of the OEKO-TEX Association.
Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent intended to slow or stop the growth of bacteria, fungi, and mildew.
Type I Environmental Declarations
Type I environmental declarations qualitatively declare the environmental data of products by labeling in accordance with a pass/fail criterion for certain types of products. Products are assessed and verified, and passing products receive an eco-label.
Type II Environmental Declarations
Type II environmental declarations are for the self-declaration of claims. Information is both qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by manufacturers who declare the information they wish to declare about the environmental attributes of their product.
Type III Environmental Declarations
Type III environmental declarations declare the environmental data of products quantified through independent life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and third-party verification.
A vinyl textile is a non-woven textile made by laminating a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film to a polyester weave. Polyvinyl chloride is chiefly made with vinyl chloride, a gas that is highly toxic, flammable, and a known carcinogen. To achieve surface textures in vinyl textiles, an embossing roller is used.
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)
A volatile organic compound (VOC) is any organic chemical that has high vapor pressure at ordinary, room temperature conditions. Concentrations of many VOCs are consistently higher indoors (sometimes up to 10 times higher) than outdoors. The high vapor pressure causes large quantities of molecules to evaporate or sublimate from the liquid or solid form of the compound and enter the surrounding air. As a result, there are many health risks associated with VOCs. The EPA is responsible for regulating VOCs in the air, water, and land, and publishes testing methods for VOCs.
A textile is considered water repellant if it is resistant but not impervious to penetration by water.
A textile is considered water resistant if it is resistant but not impervious to penetration by water.
A textile is considered waterproof if it is completely impervious to water.